简 述: 了解TCP通信之QTcpServerQTcpSocket,服务器和客户端通讯,书写一个简单地例子;然后写了一个小的 Qt例子,用来实现和验证它的空间的一些属性和功能的用法。

[TOC]

系统环境:

编程环境: MacOS 10.14.6 (18G103) 编程软件: Qt 5.9.8Qt Creator 4.8.2


Tcp通信概述:

我想能够看到网络这一部分的人,基本都是有着基本的网络认知;这里为了这一个系列的完整性,还是决定将本系列的基本知识仍旧写出来。万一之前的你是没有怎么接触过这类篇文章的鸭鸭呢?就算是完全不知,但是一些基础的还是能够让你能够有所了解,再具体的就进行自行goole和专业📚进行扩展深入扩展学习,博文尽量都提一笔,其余更多待你自行发掘。

TCP特点:

可靠,面向流传播,面向协议的一种传输协议;特别适合用于连续数据传输。实际🌰:QQ的在线发送文件,就是为了确保文件发送的完整性,使用的TCP协议。


QTcpServer属性:

TCP通信,必须先进行TCP连接,通信端口分为服务器端口和客户端。

QTcpServer是从QObject继承的类,主要是用于服务器建立网络监听,创立Socket连接的;其中主要的一些常用接口,提供·如下:

类型 函数 功能
公共函数 void close() 关闭服务器,停止网络监听
bool listen() 在给定IP地址和端口上开始监听,若是成功,就返回true
bool isListening() 返回true表示服务器处于监听状态
QTcpSocket * nextPendingConnection() 返回下一个等待接入的连接
QHostAddres serverAddress() 如果服务器处于监听状态,返回服务器地址
quint16 serverPort() 如果服务器处于监听状态,返回服务器端口
bool waitForNewConnection() 以阻塞方式等待新的连接
信号 void acceptError( QAbstractSocket::SocketError socketError ) 当接受一个新的连接时大声了错误,就发射此信号;参数socketError描述错误信息
void new Connection() 当有新的信号连接时候,发射此信号
保护函数 void incomingConnection(qintptr socketDescriptor) 当有一个新的连接可用时,QTcpServer内部调用此函数,创建一个QTcpSocket对象,添加到内部可用新连接列表,然后发射newConnetion()信号,用户若是从QTcpServer继承定义类,可以重定义此函数,但是必须调用QtcpSocket继承定义类,可以重新定义此函数,但是必须调用addPendingConnetion()
void addPendingConnection(QTcp Socket *socket) 由incomingtion()调用,将创建的QTcpSocket添加到内部新可用连接列表

服务器的程序首先是需要调用QTcpServer进行监听的【这个时候,是指定监听的IP和port的】,然后当QScoket连接的时候,会发射信号📶,newConnection(),在newConnection()的对应好的槽函数中,可以用nextPendingConnetion()接收客户端的连接,然后使用QSocket与客户端进行通信。

QTcp/QUdp继承关系图:


QAbstractSocket接口讲解:

其中主要的QAbstractSocket的主要的接口函数如下:

类型 函数 功能
公共函数 void connectToHost(QHostAddress headdress, quint16 port,) 以异步的方式连接到指定的IP地址和端口的TCP服务器,连接成功会发射connected()信号
void disconnectFromHost() 断开sokcet,关闭成功后发射disconnection()信号
bool waitForConnected() 等待直到建立socket连接
bool waitForDisconnected() 等待直到断开socket连接
QHostAddress localAddress() 返回本socket的地址
quint16 localPort() 返回本socket的端口
QHostAddress peerAddress() 在已经连接状态下,返回对方socket的地址
QString peerName() 返回connetToHost()连接到对方的主机的名
quint16 peerPort() 在已连接的状态下,返回对方的socket的port
qint64 readBuffer Size() 返回内部读取缓冲区的大小的数据的字节数;该大小决定了read()和readAll()函数能够读取出来的数据的大小
void setReadBuAerSize(qint64 size) 数据内部读取缓冲区的数据的字节数
qint64 bytesAvailable() 返回需要读取的缓冲区的字节数字
bool canReadLine() 如果有行数据要从socket缓冲区读取,就返回true
SocketState state() 返回当前socket状态
信号📶 void connected() connectionToHost()成功连接到服务器后发射此信号
void disconnected() 当socket断开连接时,发射此信号
void error(QAbstractSocket::SocketError socketError) 当socket发生错误时,发射此信号
void hostFound() 调用connectToHost()找到主机后发射此信号
void stateChanged(QAbstractSocket::SocketState socketState) 当socket的状态变化时候发射此信号,参数socketState表示了socket当前的状态
void ready Read() 当缓冲区的数据需要读取时候,发射此信号,在此信号的槽函数里面读取缓冲区的数据

运行效果:

这里先放一张运行效果图:


源码分析:

这里将TCP通信的服务器和客户端拆分为两个小的项目来写,其结构如下:

其中核心部分的源码,重点和一些难点以及需要注意的一些地方,贴出来如下:

其中服务器端:

/*
 * Copyright (C)  2019 ~ 2019 touwoyimuli.  All rights reserved.
 *
 * Author:  touwoyimuli <touwoyimuli@gmai.com>
 *
 * github:  https://github.com/touwoyimuli
 * blogs:   https://touwoyimuli.github.io/
 *
 * This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
 * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
 * the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
 * any later version.
 *
 * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
 * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
 * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
 * GNU General Public License for more details.
 *
 * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
 * along with this program.  If not, see <https://touwoyimuli.github.io/>.
 */
#ifndef EXTCPSERVER_H
#define EXTCPSERVER_H

#include <QMainWindow>
#include <QLabel>
#include <QTcpServer>
#include <QTcpSocket>
#include <QHostInfo>

namespace Ui {
class ExTcpServer;
}

class ExTcpServer : public QMainWindow
{
    Q_OBJECT

public:
    explicit ExTcpServer(QWidget *parent = nullptr);
    ~ExTcpServer();

private:
    QString getLocalIp();      //获取本机 IP

protected:
    void closeEvent(QCloseEvent* event);

private slots:
//UI的槽函数
    void on_actStart_triggered();      //开始监听
    void on_actStop_triggered();       //停止监听
    void on_actClear_triggered();      //清除文本框内容
    void on_actQuit_triggered();       //退出程序
    void on_btnSend_clicked();         //发送消息

//自定义的槽函数
    void onSocketReadyRead();          //读取 socket 传入时候的数据
    void onClientConnected();          //client socket conneted
    void onClientDisonnected();        //client socket disconneted
    void onNewConnection();            //QTcpServer 的 newConnect() 信号
    void onSocketStateChange(QAbstractSocket::SocketState socketState);

private:
    Ui::ExTcpServer *ui;

    QLabel* m_labListen;
    QLabel* m_labSocket;
    QTcpServer* m_tcpServer;
    QTcpSocket* m_tcpSocket;


};

#endif // EXTCPSERVER_H
#include "ExTcpServer.h"
#include "ui_ExTcpServer.h"

ExTcpServer::ExTcpServer(QWidget *parent) :
    QMainWindow(parent),
    ui(new Ui::ExTcpServer)
{
    ui->setupUi(this);

    m_labListen = new QLabel("监听状态:");
    m_labSocket = new QLabel("socket状态:");
    m_labListen->setMidLineWidth(200);
    m_labSocket->setMinimumWidth(200);
    ui->statusBar->addWidget(m_labListen);
    ui->statusBar->addWidget(m_labSocket);

    QString localeIp = getLocalIp();
    setWindowTitle(windowTitle() + "---IP地址:" + localeIp);
    ui->comboBox->addItem(localeIp);

    m_tcpServer = new QTcpServer(this);
    connect(m_tcpServer, SIGNAL(newConnection()), this, SLOT(onNewConnection()));
}

ExTcpServer::~ExTcpServer()
{
    delete ui;
}

QString ExTcpServer::getLocalIp()
{
    QString hostName = QHostInfo::localHostName();
    QHostInfo hostInfo = QHostInfo::fromName(hostName);
    ui->plainTextEdit->appendPlainText("本机名称:" + hostName);
    QString locaIp;

    QList<QHostAddress> list = hostInfo.addresses();

    if (list.empty())
        return "null QString";

    foreach (QHostAddress addr, list) {
        if (addr.protocol() == QAbstractSocket::IPv4Protocol) {
            locaIp = addr.toString();
            break;
        }
    }

    return locaIp;
}

void ExTcpServer::closeEvent(QCloseEvent *event)   //关闭窗口时候停止监听
{
    if (m_tcpServer->isListening())
        m_tcpServer->close();

    event->accept();
}

void ExTcpServer::on_actStart_triggered()
{
    QString Ip = ui->comboBox->currentText();
    quint16 port = ui->spinBox->value();

    QHostAddress addr(Ip);
    m_tcpServer->listen(addr, port);  //监听指定的 IP 和指定的 port
    ui->plainTextEdit->appendPlainText("服务器地址为:" + m_tcpServer->serverAddress().toString() + "   服务器端口:" + QString::number(m_tcpServer->serverPort()));
    ui->plainTextEdit->appendPlainText("开始监听...");

    ui->actStart->setEnabled(false);
    ui->actStop->setEnabled(true);
    m_labListen->setText("监听状态:正在监听...");
}

void ExTcpServer::on_actStop_triggered()
{
    if (!m_tcpServer->isListening())
        return;

    m_tcpServer->close();  //停止监听

    ui->actStart->setEnabled(true);
    ui->actStop->setEnabled(false);
    m_labListen->setText("监听状态:监听已经停止");
}

void ExTcpServer::on_actClear_triggered()
{
    ui->plainTextEdit->clear();
}

void ExTcpServer::on_actQuit_triggered()
{
    close();
}

void ExTcpServer::on_btnSend_clicked()
{
    QString msg = ui->lineEdit->text();
    ui->plainTextEdit->appendPlainText("[服务器:]" + msg);
    ui->lineEdit->clear();
    ui->plainTextEdit->hasFocus();

    QByteArray str = msg.toUtf8();
    str.append('\n');
    m_tcpSocket->write(str);
}

void ExTcpServer::onSocketReadyRead()     //读取缓冲区行文本
{
    while (m_tcpSocket->canReadLine()) {
        ui->plainTextEdit->appendPlainText("[客户端:]" + m_tcpSocket->readLine());
    }
}

void ExTcpServer::onClientConnected()    //客户端连接时
{
    ui->plainTextEdit->appendPlainText("客户端套接字连接\n对等(peer)地址:" + m_tcpSocket->peerAddress().toString()
                                       + "    对等(peer)端口:" +  QString::number(m_tcpSocket->peerPort()));

}

void ExTcpServer::onClientDisonnected()  //客户端断开连接时
{
    ui->plainTextEdit->appendPlainText("客户端套接字断开");
    m_tcpSocket->deleteLater();
}

void ExTcpServer::onNewConnection()
{
    m_tcpSocket = m_tcpServer->nextPendingConnection();   //创建 socket

    connect(m_tcpSocket, SIGNAL(connected()), this, SLOT(onClientConnected()));
    connect(m_tcpSocket, SIGNAL(disconnected()), this, SLOT(onClientDisonnected()));
    connect(m_tcpSocket, SIGNAL(stateChanged(QAbstractSocket::SocketState)), this, SLOT(onSocketStateChange(QAbstractSocket::SocketState)));
    onSocketStateChange(m_tcpSocket->state());
    connect(m_tcpSocket, SIGNAL(readyRead()), this, SLOT(onSocketReadyRead()));
}

void ExTcpServer::onSocketStateChange(QAbstractSocket::SocketState socketState)
{
    switch (socketState) {
    case QAbstractSocket::UnconnectedState:
        m_labSocket->setText("socket状态:UnconnectedState");
        break;
    case QAbstractSocket::HostLookupState:
        m_labSocket->setText("socket状态:HostLookupState");
        break;
    case QAbstractSocket::ConnectingState:
        m_labSocket->setText("socket状态:ConnectingState");
        break;
    case QAbstractSocket::ConnectedState:
        m_labSocket->setText("socket状态:ConnectedState");
        break;
    case QAbstractSocket::BoundState:
        m_labSocket->setText("socket状态:BoundState");
        break;
    case QAbstractSocket::ClosingState:
        m_labSocket->setText("socket状态:ClosingState");
        break;
    case QAbstractSocket::ListeningState:
        m_labSocket->setText("socket状态:ListeningState");
        break;
    default:
        m_labSocket->setText("socket状态:其他未知状态...");
        break;
    }
}

其中客户端:

#ifndef EXTCPCLIENT_H
#define EXTCPCLIENT_H

#include <QMainWindow>
#include <QLabel>
#include <QTcpSocket>
#include <QHostInfo>

namespace Ui {
class ExTcpClient;
}

class ExTcpClient : public QMainWindow
{
    Q_OBJECT

public:
    explicit ExTcpClient(QWidget *parent = nullptr);
    ~ExTcpClient();

private:
    QString getLocalIp();                  //获取本本机 IP

protected:
    void closeEvent(QCloseEvent *event);

private slots:
    //UI 定义的槽函数
    void on_actConnect_triggered();     //请求连接到服务器
    void on_actDisconnect_triggered();  //断开与服务器的连接
    void on_actClear_triggered();       //清除内容
    void on_actQuit_triggered();        //退出程序
    void on_btnSend_clicked();          //发送文本消息

    //自定义的槽函数
    void onConnected();
    void onDisconnected();
    void onSocketReadyRead();           //从socket读取传入的数据
    void onSocketStateChange(QAbstractSocket::SocketState socketState);

private:
    Ui::ExTcpClient *ui;

    QLabel* m_labSocket;
    QTcpSocket* m_tcpSocket;
};

#endif // EXTCPCLIENT_H
#include "ExTcpClient.h"
#include "ui_ExTcpClient.h"

ExTcpClient::ExTcpClient(QWidget *parent) :
    QMainWindow(parent),
    ui(new Ui::ExTcpClient)
{
    ui->setupUi(this);

    m_labSocket = new QLabel("socket状态:");
    m_labSocket->setMidLineWidth(150);
    ui->statusBar->addWidget(m_labSocket);

    m_tcpSocket = new QTcpSocket(this);

    QString localIp = getLocalIp();
    this->setWindowTitle(windowTitle() + "----本机IP:" + localIp);
    ui->comboBox->addItem(localIp);

    connect(m_tcpSocket, SIGNAL(connected()), this, SLOT(onConnected()));
    connect(m_tcpSocket, SIGNAL(disconnected()), this, SLOT(onDisconnected()));
    connect(m_tcpSocket, SIGNAL(stateChanged(QAbstractSocket::SocketState)), this, SLOT(onSocketStateChange(QAbstractSocket::SocketState)));
    connect(m_tcpSocket, SIGNAL(readyRead()), this, SLOT(onSocketReadyRead()));
}

ExTcpClient::~ExTcpClient()
{
    delete ui;
}

QString ExTcpClient::getLocalIp()
{
    QString hostName = QHostInfo::localHostName();
    QHostInfo hostInfo = QHostInfo::fromName(hostName);
    ui->plainTextEdit->appendPlainText("本机名称:" + hostName);
    QString localIp;

    foreach (QHostAddress addr, hostInfo.addresses()) {
        if (QAbstractSocket::IPv4Protocol == addr.protocol()) {
            localIp = addr.toString();
            break;
        }
    }
    return localIp;
}

void ExTcpClient::closeEvent(QCloseEvent *event)
{
    if (m_tcpSocket->state() == QAbstractSocket::ConnectedState)
        m_tcpSocket->disconnectFromHost();

    event->accept();
}

void ExTcpClient::onConnected()
{
    ui->plainTextEdit->appendPlainText("已经连接到服务器\n客户端套接字连接\n对等(peer)地址:" + m_tcpSocket->peerAddress().toString()
                                       + "    对等(peer)端口:" +  QString::number(m_tcpSocket->peerPort()));
    ui->actConnect->setEnabled(false);
    ui->actDisconnect->setEnabled(true);
}

void ExTcpClient::onDisconnected()
{
    ui->plainTextEdit->appendPlainText("已经断开与服务器的连接\n");
    ui->actConnect->setEnabled(true);
    ui->actDisconnect->setEnabled(false);
}

void ExTcpClient::onSocketReadyRead()
{
    while (m_tcpSocket->canReadLine()) {
        ui->plainTextEdit->appendPlainText("[服务器:]" + m_tcpSocket->readLine());
    }
}

void ExTcpClient::onSocketStateChange(QAbstractSocket::SocketState socketState)
{
    switch (socketState) {
    case QAbstractSocket::UnconnectedState:
        m_labSocket->setText("socket状态:UnconnectedState");
        break;
    case QAbstractSocket::HostLookupState:
        m_labSocket->setText("socket状态:HostLookupState");
        break;
    case QAbstractSocket::ConnectingState:
        m_labSocket->setText("socket状态:ConnectingState");
        break;
    case QAbstractSocket::ConnectedState:
        m_labSocket->setText("socket状态:ConnectedState");
        break;
    case QAbstractSocket::BoundState:
        m_labSocket->setText("socket状态:BoundState");
        break;
    case QAbstractSocket::ClosingState:
        m_labSocket->setText("socket状态:ClosingState");
        break;
    case QAbstractSocket::ListeningState:
        m_labSocket->setText("socket状态:ListeningState");
        break;
    default:
        m_labSocket->setText("socket状态:其他未知状态...");
        break;
    }
}

void ExTcpClient::on_actConnect_triggered()
{
    QString addr = ui->comboBox->currentText();
    quint16 port = ui->spinBox->value();
    m_tcpSocket->connectToHost(addr, port);
}

void ExTcpClient::on_actDisconnect_triggered()
{
    if(m_tcpSocket->state() == QAbstractSocket::ConnectedState)
        m_tcpSocket->disconnectFromHost();
}

void ExTcpClient::on_actClear_triggered()
{
    ui->plainTextEdit->clear();
}

void ExTcpClient::on_actQuit_triggered()
{
    close();
}

void ExTcpClient::on_btnSend_clicked()
{
    QString msg = ui->lineEdit->text();
    ui->plainTextEdit->appendPlainText("[客户端:]" + msg);
    ui->lineEdit->clear();
    ui->lineEdit->setFocus();

    QByteArray str = msg.toUtf8();
    str.append('\n');
    m_tcpSocket->write(str);
}

源码下载:

https://github.com/xmuli/QtExamples 【QtTcpEx】